There are several methods and procedures have been possible to cast bronze. Below attempts to give a summary of the basic steps. A model is made, typically of wax. but as a rubbermal of is made, it can also be of clay, gypsum, plastic or even wood or stone. The wax used for this is generally casting wax, modeling wax or paraffin. For small wax models, the watering can immediately proceed to the next step. For larger models or scale models of clay or plaster must first be made a hollow wax model. To this end, the watering can is usually a rubbermal with a plaster support cap, which ensures that the rubber mold retains its shape. In this rubbermal different materials can be molded at relatively low temperature, such as casting wax or gypsum. In this case, a cast of hard was needed, which is already on the thickness of the final bronze. Above a certain thickness it is indeed difficult to pour massive bronze, by uneven shrinkage of thicker and thinner parts. The watering can pouring in the liquid wax rubbermal, until a layer thickness was at the right in the mold is solidified. The rest is drained, thus creating a hollow wax casting. The (hollow) casting is provided with projections which serve subsequently to wash as casting channels for the supply of the bronze and venting channels for the discharge of the air in the mold. The wax casting, including channels, the inside and outside covered with a refractory material. This can be a mixture of gypsum and chamotte or other shrink-proof and fire-proof material. Stainless steel core support will ensure that the distance between the core and the outside remains the same. The completed mold is heated for a long in an oven in order to melt out the wax and to remove all moisture from the mold, and if this is made of plaster, also all chemically bound water. There has now arisen a dry mold having a cavity in the shape of the model with casting channels. This liquid bronze is poured. After cooling, the channels are cut away and the casting is finished: blackberries and projections are ground away and unwanted holes and cavities are close hammered or welded. To protect against oxidation and for the embellishment is at bronze castings, particularly in the sculpture, often arranged a patina layer with chemicals, the so-called patina.