Silver has been used for the beginning of our era decorations and cards. Excavations show that already 4000-3500 BC. silver was separated from lead on islands in the Aegean and Anatolia. Silver was often associated with the moon, the sea and various deities. The alchemy was used for silver symbol of a crescent and alchemists called Luna. Metal mercury was thought that it was some kind of silver. In some languages, there is still the name that mercury like quicksilver in English or mercury (meaning alive silver) in older Dutch. Much later turned out to be two completely different elements. The name Silver leads through the Old High German silbar of the Germanic root * seluƀra-. One suspects that it is a loan word that from Asia Minor or even further afield comes here. In Latin it is called Silver argentum, where silver symbol Ag owes. There are at least fourteen languages in which the same word is used for silver and money. Well known examples are the Spanish and French plata argent. Until well into the 20th century coinage of silver and gold, the main payment of humanity. Today we see the use of silver only on commemorative coins and other collector coins and medals. Silver is a widely used material in the applied arts for the production of reliefs, busts, reliquaries, baptismal shells and other liturgical vessels, candlesticks, tobacco and snuff boxes, coffee pots, silverware and other ornamental and utensils. Sterling Silver (alloy with very high silver content) by goldsmiths is widely used for the manufacture of jewelry. Silver bracelets, necklaces and earrings are already known from antiquity. In the 18th century, silver shoe buckles in fashion. A charm bracelet is almost always made of silver. Silver is also used to redeem items made of inferior metals. Silver leaf, consisting of thin slices of silver, is used for decoration, for example in the painting (icons), or gold in the manufacture of leather. A special application of silver leaf is vark (or varakh), India in the popular use to decorate cakes with very thin layers of pure silver. For levels of very high quality silver is suitable because it possesses good light reflecting properties. But usually uses aluminum because it is much cheaper. The good electrical conductivity of silver makes it a very suitable material in electrical and electronic products. In circuits is silver (or silver alloy) used to connect components to each other. For longer connections silver too expensive. As a silver catalyst is used in the industry for example for the production of formaldehyde and ethylene oxide. In dentistry, silver is now no longer used because, while it is relatively easy to make the correct shape, but still has some toxic properties. Because of its disinfectant properties, silver is now also used again to purify drinking water or pure love. Especially for small quantities of water (up to 100 liters) is silver (as silver nitrate), easier to dose and apply than chlorine. In medicine, colloidal silver was once used as an antibiotic, alternative medicine, this happens still. In the laboratory lot of silver nitrate applied as a reagent in chloride provisions, including by precipitation. In addition, the insoluble silver chloride is formed. Silver is used as the silver halides in the photography. Finely atomised silver iodide is used to make rain and to reduce fog around airports. Namely, silver iodide allows for the aggregation of small water droplets which form the cloud. Silver is a metal that is easy to work a little harder than gold and has a white sheen. Silver has the best of all metal electrical conductivity and the lowest contact resistance, better than copper and gold. Gold, by contrast, used more often because it does not corrode. In addition, silver conductive of all metals heat the best and has the highest optical reflectivity (at least as far as the visible light, ultraviolet light reflects the bad). Silver halides are sensitive to light. The metal is stable in pure air and pure water, but when exposed to ozone or hydrogen sulfide discolors it. In the event that silver with sulfur or compounds thereof comes into contact a black layer is formed of silver sulphide.
CULTIVATED / FRESHWATER PEARLS
Below is a small story about the production of freshwater pearls, With Timmersgems find here the best quality of pearls from Japan, China and other areas, always harvested and produced in an eco friendly way, with a passion for nature and people. Cultured freshwater pearls are pearls that are grown and made using freshwater mussels. These pearls are produced in Japan and the United States on a limited scale, but are now almost exclusively produced in China. The US Federal Trade Commission requires that freshwater cultured pearls are known as "freshwater cultured pearls' in the trade. quality cultured freshwater pearls are evaluated through an assessment of a range of values based on luster, shape and other factors Pearls harvested from the wild in the Holarctic freshwater pearl mussel were important sources of pearls to medieval jewelery, with Scotland as an important source This species now become threatened in most areas.
CURRENT AND HISTORIC INDUSTRY
Although the Japanese freshwater pearl industry has almost ceased to exist, it has a special historical place as the first country to produce all freshwater pearls, this they have done by cultivating in Lake Biwa mussels, using the Biwa pearly mussel (hyriopsisschlegeli). The industry tried a comeback with a hybrid mussel (Hyriopsis schlegeli / Hyriopsis cumingi) in Lake Kasumigaura in the last decade, but this venture failed and unfortunately the production is to cease in 2006. The pearl farm in Tennessee also has special historical
value, because it produced the only freshwater pearl outside of Asia. Founded by the late John Latendresse, it remains as a tourist attraction. Today China is the only commercial producer of freshwater pearls, production is 1500 tons (2005) to the zebra mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii)
The grafting process begins with selecting a suitable donor mussel and cutting a strip of tissue from the shell. This strip of tissue is then cut into three millimeter squares. These compartments are provided to a technician who they have been prepared. this process is not difficult, and the technician has to follow only minimal training for the
to carry out the treatment. The technician makes small incisions on the top cover, and adds texture to the piece. the fabric is twisted slightly during insertion to create more rounded pearls in relation After the maximum number of vaccinations are completed, the mussel is reversed, and the procedure is performed again on the other valve of the shell. Chinese freshwater mussels were once grafted to 50 times per shell, or 25 times per valve. the cockscomb pearl mussel popular (Crist Aria plicata). This mussel produced a high volume of low-quality pearls that came to be known as "Crispy Rice pearls" in the 1970s and 1980s. More than a decade ago shifted
freshwater pearl industry of China producing the cockscomb pearl mussel to the Triangle shell mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii). The triangle produces fewer beads, accepted only 12-16 grafts per valve for a total production of 24 to 32 beads, pearls produced but of better quality.
Harvested freshwater pearls are usually bought while they are still in the shell. After harvest of the beads, they are supplied to a first phase plant, which is responsible for cleaning and sorting of the beads according to size and shape. After this process is finished, the beads are considered ready for processing in factories. The beads are prepared (maeshori) in warm and cold chemical solution and then bleached. The pearls which exhibit strong discoloration go through the maeshori and not bleached or dyed. After the beads have been treated, they are drilled and then polished with a mixture of maize flour and wax. Finally, they are matched in temporary strands, which are then matched again in hanks. Strands are composed of 5 to 10 strands temporary and considered to be ready for wholesale.