Succinic (incorrectly also called amber) is a fossil resin which is derived from coniferous trees. These trees were often referred to by the scientific name Pinus succinifera, a living pine species. The resin millions of years ago dripped from the trees and then petrified. Amber dating from the Mesozoic to the Quaternary. Amber is usually warm yellow to dark red in color, but there are more green, blue or even black types. Transparent amber is generally found the most beautiful and the most precious. Mineralogical seen succinic has an amorphous structure. It is quite soft, the hardness is 2-2.5. The word amber - in German Bernstein - comes from the Lower Saxon word that means Bornen burn. Indeed, this gemstone is flammable. Hot amber in English amber. In Dutch with amber usually meant the color amber. Also, a substance from the intestines of the sperm whale is called amber. This substance smells strong and is used in perfumes. The fact that many insects are found in amber also not escape the Romans. They stated this (correctly) by assuming that amber was liquid when it covered the insects. Therefore they called the stone Succinum or gum-stone. And the name still occurs in succinic acid (succinic acid), the scientific name for the pine species Pinus succinifera and also succinite, a name given by James Dwight Dana was given to a certain type of amber originating from the Baltic region. A general group of land snails are amber snails. They are so named because of the amber yellow color of the cochlea. The scientific name of a kind of amber snails reads Succinea putris. Amber is electrically charged by rubbing it along an animal fur. For this reason, the term electricity derived from the Greek word for amber, electron (Latin: electrum). In Greek mythology, the god Helios let one day his son Phaeton drive the solar car. But Phaeton could not rein in the horses, so the sun heaven and earth scorched. So were the people in Ethiopia their dark color. To save the earth Zeus throws his thunderbolt to Phaeton causing this death falls to the ground. The sisters of Phaeton, the Heliades, mourn him. Their tears trickle down and solidify into amber. The Greek mythological character Elektra is identified with amber. The Greek word for amber is "electron" (ηλεκτρον) from which our word "electricity" coming as a amber was up to the Greeks from the amber islands which one situated at the mouth of the legendary Amber River in the far north, the Eridanos.
Silver has been used for the beginning of our era decorations and cards. Excavations show that already 4000-3500 BC. silver was separated from lead on islands in the Aegean and Anatolia. Silver was often associated with the moon, the sea and various deities. The alchemy was used for silver symbol of a crescent and alchemists called Luna. Metal mercury was thought that it was some kind of silver. In some languages, there is still the name that mercury like quicksilver in English or mercury (meaning alive silver) in older Dutch. Much later turned out to be two completely different elements. The name Silver leads through the Old High German silbar of the Germanic root * seluƀra-. One suspects that it is a loan word that from Asia Minor or even further afield comes here. In Latin it is called Silver argentum, where silver symbol Ag owes. There are at least fourteen languages in which the same word is used for silver and money. Well known examples are the Spanish and French plata argent. Until well into the 20th century coinage of silver and gold, the main payment of humanity. Today we see the use of silver only on commemorative coins and other collector coins and medals. Silver is a widely used material in the applied arts for the production of reliefs, busts, reliquaries, baptismal shells and other liturgical vessels, candlesticks, tobacco and snuff boxes, coffee pots, silverware and other ornamental and utensils. Sterling Silver (alloy with very high silver content) by goldsmiths is widely used for the manufacture of jewelry. Silver bracelets, necklaces and earrings are already known from antiquity. In the 18th century, silver shoe buckles in fashion. A charm bracelet is almost always made of silver. Silver is also used to redeem items made of inferior metals. Silver leaf, consisting of thin slices of silver, is used for decoration, for example in the painting (icons), or gold in the manufacture of leather. A special application of silver leaf is vark (or varakh), India in the popular use to decorate cakes with very thin layers of pure silver. For levels of very high quality silver is suitable because it possesses good light reflecting properties. But usually uses aluminum because it is much cheaper. The good electrical conductivity of silver makes it a very suitable material in electrical and electronic products. In circuits is silver (or silver alloy) used to connect components to each other. For longer connections silver too expensive. As a silver catalyst is used in the industry for example for the production of formaldehyde and ethylene oxide. In dentistry, silver is now no longer used because, while it is relatively easy to make the correct shape, but still has some toxic properties. Because of its disinfectant properties, silver is now also used again to purify drinking water or pure love. Especially for small quantities of water (up to 100 liters) is silver (as silver nitrate), easier to dose and apply than chlorine. In medicine, colloidal silver was once used as an antibiotic, alternative medicine, this happens still. In the laboratory lot of silver nitrate applied as a reagent in chloride provisions, including by precipitation. In addition, the insoluble silver chloride is formed. Silver is used as the silver halides in the photography. Finely atomised silver iodide is used to make rain and to reduce fog around airports. Namely, silver iodide allows for the aggregation of small water droplets which form the cloud. Silver is a metal that is easy to work a little harder than gold and has a white sheen. Silver has the best of all metal electrical conductivity and the lowest contact resistance, better than copper and gold. Gold, by contrast, used more often because it does not corrode. In addition, silver conductive of all metals heat the best and has the highest optical reflectivity (at least as far as the visible light, ultraviolet light reflects the bad). Silver halides are sensitive to light. The metal is stable in pure air and pure water, but when exposed to ozone or hydrogen sulfide discolors it. In the event that silver with sulfur or compounds thereof comes into contact a black layer is formed of silver sulphide.