Peru (Spanish: Perú; Quechua and Aymara: Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú), is a country on the west coast of South America. It is bordered by Ecuador and Colombia in the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Both "Peruvian" and "Peruvian" is correct as an adjective. Before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors Peru was the heart of the empire of the Incas, which Cuzco was the capital. Between the conquest in 1572 and independence in 1821 the country was ruled by Spain. From that time Peru was alternately ruled by military and civilian governments. Also exchanged dictators and democratic governments each other. Between 1836 and 1839 Peru formed a confederation with Bolivia. From 1864 to 1866 Peru has waged war with Spain over the Peruvian guano islands (the Ballesta Islands). Spain had in fact occupied one of these islands, but Peru was disagreed. In this war won Peru, thanks to the help of Ecuador, Bolivia and Chile. Peru has conducted war with Bolivia against Chile between 1879 and 1883, called the Saltpeter War. Namely Chile attacked the coast of Peru and occupied the desert, where many precious salt was found. Peru lost the war and had to give up two provinces to Chile. From 1980 to 1992 was the Peruvian population suffers from the violent actions of the Maoist Shining Path terrorist movement, which aimed to overthrow the existing order. The brutal arbitrariness with which it was associated have killed at least thirty people dead and caused an estimated Euro 29.5 billion in property damage. The manifestation of Shining Path was the twentieth century's greatest obstacle to the development of Peru, until the pipe was put in prison in 1992.