Tourmaline (quartz) is a group of minerals, all cyclo silicates. The minerals in this group share a characteristic chemical formula: AX3Y6 (BO3) 3 Si6O18 (O, OH, F) 4. The A may contain calcium or sodium. The X can consist of aluminum, iron, lithium or magnesium. The Y is typically aluminum, but may also be chromium or iron. At the position of A may be some potassium, manganese can be in X and vanadium can be found in Y, but these elements are not common in the formulas of the tourmaline group. Tourmaline is found in pegmatites, metamorfieten, magma tits and alluvial deposits. Although tourmaline was known already in antiquity in the Mediterranean, he was only in 1703 from Sri Lanka by the Dutch introduced in Western Europe. They named the new gem of a Sinhalese word "Turmali" which means "stone of mixed colors". If gemstones were used traditionally Rubel left - they were by artists like talisman, because they would increase creativity of artists. Tourmaline have certain unique properties. They are piezo-electric, which means that if a crystal is heated or compressed, different electric charges are formed at the both ends of the crystal. This creates an electrical potential. If an external electrical potential is carried out on the crystal, it vibrates. The minerals are pleochroïsch, which means that the crystal darker in color is viewed along the longest axis of the crystal, considering than perpendicular to that axis. The four best-known and most abundant tourmaline minerals have different colors and transparencies. ELBAITE is transparent and valuable gemstone. Schorl, which is rich in iron, is the most abundant mineral in the tourmaline group, and is black and opaque. It is mainly formed in pegmatites, the extreme slow cooling gangues of a magma. The other two tourmalines are regularly encountered draviet and uviet. Draviet is usually brown translucent and may be very large. Uviet green translucent to opaque. Tourmaline is found in the sands of Dutch Quaternary river sediments. Among others it is a characteristic component of Maas Zanden. In the heavy-mineral analysis as in the Netherlands at the Geological Survey during the second half of the twentieth century took place the mineral is classified in the so-called stable group
Gemstone therapy Tourmaline (Dutch)
Rock crystal is colorless and most common variant of the mineral quartz (silicon dioxide, SiO2) The name "crystal" derives from the Greek word "Krustallos" which means ice. It was believed that rock crystal was designed by the gods ice. At the time of the Mesolithic was known rhinestone al. During Roman times from the Alps under the name "petrified ice" on the market. Theofratus called it "krystallos". Also Pliny the Elder mentions it. The name "Quartz" was introduced in 1529 by Georgius Agricola. The peoples of the East considered rock crystal and stone of patience and perfection. Tibetans use crystal to crystal to behandelen.De wounds choice as a drinking glass or as part of medieval jewelry can be attributed to the belief that these crystals would crack or discolor when they came in contact with poison So the chain was a amuletdat protecting the king compare Rudolfinische imperial crown and the chain of the Jehovah-order Genesis:... Megnatieten, pegmatites, hydrothermal and alpine stone veins, alluvial deposits Appearance:. Rock crystal is naturally widespread, but not always in gemstone quality Historically known sites are India and Sri Lanka (near Tatnaputi) Iridescent quartz from the area of Poona in India and out.. Myanmar is a rarity. Beautiful crystals come from Kenya and Madagascar, also from Brazil (Minas Gerais), Goisas, Bahia and French Guiana. In the US, Rhinestone for in pegmatites, including in Maine (in Ausburn, New York, North Carolina, Arkansas (Crystal Peak) and California. Of particular significance are occurrences in the Alps. Rhinestones are found in Switzerland (eg Urim where a crystal of 135 kg has been found in the area of the St. Gotthard and Grimsel), in Austria (in 1965 at the Grossglockner found a crystal of nearly 1,000 kg in a cavity). Rhinestones are also found in Germany, the Czech Republic Poland and France in the collections of several museums are unique faceted rhinestones The Smithsonian Institution Washington has a polished stone of 7000 kt and a rock crystal sphere with a diameter of 33 cm and a weight of 48.5 kg.. it comes out Burma and was cut in China.
Gemstone Therapy Rockcrystal (Dutch)