Petrified wood, also referred to by the English term petrified wood, is a kind of fossil: it consists of fossil wood, in which all organic materials have been replaced by minerals (mostly silicates, such as quartz), while maintaining the structure of the wood. The process of ossification takes place under the ground, when a tree becomes buried under sediment, and may take millions of years. Ground water slowly seeps through the soil, turn off minerals where the lignin and cellulose rot. If the deposition and rotting go the same speed, the shape of the cells is maintained. The smallest details can be immortalized. Petrified tree rings and various tissues can be traced down to the microscopic level. Petrified wood has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs hardness scale, the same as quartz. The fossilization process has now returned to a laboratory for several days. Petrified timber occurs in a wide range of colors by varying the deposition of minerals such as manganese, iron and copper. Quartz is colorless, but when iron is added, creates crystals with a red or yellow hue, as is evident from the list below: Carbon - black Cobalt - green / blue Chromium - Green / Blue Copper - green / blue Iron oxides - red, brown, yellow manganese - pink / orange Manganese - Black Silica - white, gray. Repositories: Argentina: The Petrified Forest National Monument is seen in the Argentine Santa Cruz as one of the world's best preserved petrified forests; many petrified trees in Patagonia have a diameter of more than 3m and longer than 30 meters. Belgium: Geosite Gold Mountain near Hoegaarden * Greece: Petrified Forest in Sigri on the western tip of the island of Lesbos is probably the largest petrified forest, more than 150 km². There are strains up to 22 meters long. Large trees, complete with their roots, are still standing upright. Since 1985, it is a protected nature reserve. * Kerguelen: the French islands remains were found in petrified forests ninety million years old. * Namibia: The petrified trees near Khorixas are probably like tree trunks across rivers, from the north, fed to Namibia. Some recognizable strains are 30 m long. * Austria: in the state of Carinthia located at Laas remains of a petrified forest. * Czech Republic: The largest stone is located in the Nová Paka village museum and is 8.20 m long. * USA: The largest ones in the country get approximately 1.8 m in diameter and are therefore considerably smaller than those in southern America. A famous park is the Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona.
islands. Amongst it's famous spot for diving and swimming it is famous for it's high quality gemstones that are extracted from the soil and rocks. We at Timmersgems can say with proud that we are the second largest importer for Madagaskian gemstones in Europe just after a French company. Anualy we have at least 3 large containers filled with the most beautiful gemstones, minerals and bufallo horns. If you take a look in our webshop and showroom you will come accross great Labradorite, Amethyst, Citrine, Rose Quartz and many many other great ones. We are doing business with 17 small family businesses on the island and this way we can guarantee you the best prices in the market for best gemstones and minerals. Also we support these families since we started our business 35 years ago we are almost in love with the island,it's people and the products. Every year it is a great thing to visit the island and find the best stones for you. Also we support all the small family businesses and their children to give them a good education, also we support in local infra structure an water transportation. Madagascar's natural resources include a variety of unprocessed agricultural and mineral resources. Agriculture, including raffia, fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy. Madagascar is among the world's principal suppliers of vanilla, cloves and ylang-ylang. Other key agricultural resources include coffee, lychees and shrimp. Key mineral resources include various types of precious and semi-precious stones, and Madagascar currently provides half of the world's supply of sapphires, which were discovered near Ilakaka in the late 1990s. The island also holds one of the world's largest reserves of ilmenite (titanium ore), as well as important reserves of chromite, coal, iron, cobalt, copper and nickel. Several major projects are underway in the mining, oil and gas sectors that are anticipated to give a significant boost to the Malagasy economy. These include such projects as ilmenite and zircon mining from heavy mineral sands near Tôlanaro by Rio Tinto Madagascar is a very poor country witgh a lot of flora and fauna, On Madagaskar you can find 400 plants and animals you will never find anywhere in the world. Also the minarals blue celstite, Labradorite and polychrome & Oceanjasper are found only on Madagascar.