Sapphire (Hebrew: ספּיר or Sapir) is a precious gemstone. It is a transparent corundum. Blue good quality stones are generally classified as one of the most valuable gemstones. The blue color is due to "dirty" iron articles which are present in the corundum. Sapphires have been around since time immemorial beloved gems, because of their great beauty and their extraordinary properties. In the past, all the blue stone called "sapphire". Only in the early 19th century they were considered along with rubies as an independent gems within the korundgroep. Sapphires are attributed extraordinary characteristics. Sapphire gives its owner strength, honor and immortality. He was the symbol of wealth and prevented discord and sorrow. Sapphire is one of the "nine gems" in Thai Order of the Nine Gems. Sapphires and leucosaffieren be like since the earliest antiquity found on the island of Sri Lanka. These sites extend over an area of approximately 2000 km². Sometimes even large stones have been found, but these are not always of gem quality. The largest sapphire has allegedly weighing 20 kg. In the year 1974 here sapphires were found of 144 and 300 carats. Sapphires are mainly found in Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, China (Shandong), Madagascar (particularly around Ilakaka), East Africa and Myanmar, but also in Australia and in the United States (in Montana). The sapphires from Kashmir cornflower blue and the highly valued. The species from Sri Lanka are paler; which have a metallic sheen in Montana; and the Australian sapphires have a dark shade, which gives them an almost black appearance. Like rubies of similar structure, some sapphires show a hexagonal star when cut into a cabochon (round shape) and are exposed to direct sunlight. Such star sapphires are usually found in Sri Lanka. Synthetic sapphires are created by the merger of aluminum with titanium dioxide as coloring agent is added. Also corundum gemstone quality with a color other than red or blue, they give the name sapphire. Thus, there are next to blue sapphires also colorless sapphires (leukosaffier) and yellow, pink, violet and green sapphires. There are also multi-colored sapphires. Otherwise colored sapphires are usually worth less than blue sapphires. An exception is the orange-pink sapphire (Padparadja), which is very rare and therefore expensive.