Lapis lazuli is an opaque gemstone with an intense azure color. It is not a mineral, but a rock, because it consists of more than one component. It is mainly produced in Afghanistan. The main component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%), a veldspaatvervanger having the chemical formula (Na, Ca) 8 (AlSiO4) 6 (S, SO4, Cl) 1-2 . Other important components are : calcite (white), sodalite (blue) and pyrite (yellow - metallic gloss). Further, also the minerals augite, diopside, enstatite, mica, hauynite, hornblende, geyeriet (sulfur rich variety of lollingiet) and prevent noseaan in lapis lazuli. Lapis lazuli for a gemstone is not particularly hard. On Mohs scale, the hardness is 5.5, which means that the stone can be easily scratched by harder gems. It is therefore not sensible jewelry with lapis lazuli store with harder gemstones. Lapis lazuli is awarded spiritual power by alternative practitioners. Lapis lazuli usually occurs through contact metamorphosis in crystalline marble. Lapis lazuli was already known since ancient times. It was in the city of Ur as early as 4000 BC. in acting. It was one of the commercial products of the trade between Sumer, Dilmun and Meluhha. It was also very popular in ancient Egypt. It was used, for example, the death mask of Tutankhamun. There was in the entire Middle East so much in demand that there are already in the 13th century BC. imitations were manufactured. From the city Sidon cylinder seals are known, for example, of King Annipi and his father Adummu which have been given a dark blue color with the aid of cobalt salts. They used lapis lazuli also in ground form as a blue dye (ultramarine), also in the painting of the Renaissance was very popular.
The first Egyptian pyramid was built over 4500 years ago as a tomb for the Egyptian pharaoh, the then rulers of ancient Egypt. His successors followed him in this way bury and they were just like their predecessor mummified after death and with valuables and personal items placed in the interior of a pyramid. In total, approximately eighty pyramids have been preserved, built over a period of about a thousand years. The earliest form of a pyramid is the mastaba, a box-shaped structure in which important persons were buried. The Step Pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser in Saqqara is the first step towards building true pyramids.
The shape of the pyramids probably had two meanings:
1.Ancient hill: according to one of the Cosmogonies ancient hills or tumulus was the first thing that was born out of the chaos / water. The oerheuvel stood for the creation and the creation of the pyramid would symbolize revive after death.
2.stairway to heaven: Pharaoh used the pyramid as a staircase to take place after his death among the circumpolar stars.
Archaeological research would have shown that several elements in the architecture and keeping the position of the pyramids associated with the then worship gods (sun god) and took into account the position of the heavenly bodies. However, this theory is controversial and is regarded by Egyptologists as pyramidology.
The construction site of pyramids were always carefully chosen. They were often built on a base of limestone because it was a strong base. And it was necessary for the weight of the pyramids. Also, since the limestone was used to build the pyramid itself, and it was convenient as the blocks of stone near could be won. But the Egyptians were not good from the start in building pyramids. The Egyptians did not know first that a good foundation was crucial. For example, the pyramid of Meidum was built on sand. This is not well preserved, there are anywhere broken chunks of stone to the pyramid. Once the site was chosen, the foundation was laid. It was precisely measured where the pyramid would come and how great that would be. Also took into account the side where the corners were going. The Egyptians knew was fairly accurate true north, east and south west. This they probably calculated by studying the stars. Then they made a smooth plateau so they had a solid base for the enormous weight of the pyramid. The location for the pyramid was also taken into account the presence of sufficient material. The bricks were therefore often just carved on the pyramid and transported from the quarry. Sometimes, there were taken from a further distance stones, for example, in the case of the pyramids in Giza. These stones were then used for the outside because they were nicer. On the inside it has used the ordinary stone. There are the pyramids in Egypt granite slabs found 500 tons. With today's lifting techniques is the highest weight of 200 tons. Today it is assumed that the construction of a pyramid was largely the work of professional builders and not slaves, as Herodotus said. According to modern reconstructions were needed for the construction of a single pyramid tens of thousands of people. Probably existed for most of the construction workers from the local Egyptian farmers as a kind of "forced labor" for the Pharaohs were helping to build and during the periodic flooding of their fields by the Nile could never worked on the land. Some years ago, the remains of an entire town for the builders found near the Giza Plateau. From the remains of the kitchens found that the workers were not too short and enjoyed a nutritious diet, whatever was necessary for the heavy lifting with heavy stone blocks. The Egyptians of the fourth dynasty have never been written down how they built the great pyramids. Prompts can be extracted from some of the drawings, such as those from the twelfth dynasty in which can be seen that water is poured in front of a kind of slide. This could demonstrate that one of the carriage over wet clay could drag in order to transport the said blocks. However, there are other theories about how the pyramids were built. One is the theory of the straight ramp. However, this is highly unlikely. The slope was not so steep, and therefore the ramp would be much too long. This would eventually contain the ramp itself more material than the pyramid itself. A second theory is that of the spiral ramp. According to this theory, around the pyramid refuge a spiral that would be demolished after construction. Again, this theory is highly unlikely. Firstly, can be achieved if not all parts of the pyramid. Secondly, it is virtually impossible for the large blocks of the bend in order to get. In 1989, discovered his friend Mark Lehner and Zahi Hawass, the remains of an old bakery. Here they found the remains of tafla. Tafla is a type of clay, as tafla gets wet it is very slippery and could move large blocks of stone using wooden rollers and a spiral ramp. In this way it was possible to block the corners to get. This theory is once successfully performed by NOVA, albeit on a scale. The only problem with this theory is still that could not reach all parts of the pyramid. The latter theory is the sand theory. The idea is that on both sides of the pyramid is a kind of wooden container, one at a time for a block of stone and sand. By ropes the block pulled upwards if there is enough sand in the bucket to the other side. The only problem with this theory is that the sand must always be brought to the surface, this is possible, but would take up a lot of time.